Measuring phase and amplitude at microwave frequencies
Rick Nelson, Editor in Chief- May 1, 2008
Why vector network analysis? That's the question posed by author Michael Hiebel near the beginning of this hefty hardcover book that answers the easy as well as the difficult questions regarding RF measurements. The simple answer to Hiebel's question is, of course, that vector network analyzers (VNA), unlike their scalar counterparts, measure phase as well as amplitude, but he goes on to elaborate: A VNA can perform full system error correction, it yields results that can be unambiguously translated into the time domain, and it supports embedding and de-embedding.
Hiebel begins by applying a VNA to a simple frequency converter, deriving Smith chart and other graphical representations of the circuit's performance. He goes on to describe the transmit and receive architecture of a VNA test set, commenting on the role of phase-locked loops (PLLs) and temperature-compensated crystal oscillators (TCXOs) in generator operation and on the role of the heterodyne principle and digital signal processing in receiver operation.
After covering the basics, Hiebel moves on to provide a chapter on measurement accuracy and calibration, providing details on random and systematic measurement errors, calibration standards and traceability, error models, and measurement uncertainty. Additional chapters show how to make linear and nonlinear measurements as well as time-domain measurements. Appendixes provide a review of complex numbers and matrix operations and, not surprisingly, list Rohde & Schwarz VNA models (which are used in measurement examples throughout the book).
The first edition was published in 2005 but didn't come to my attention at the time, so I can't comment on what's been revised. Unlike some vendors who write handbooks that they distribute free, Rohde & Schwarz charges for this one, but the €68 price tag (about $110) seems modest for a book providing this level of useful information. The book is currently available in English, German, and Chinese.
Rohde & Schwarz, www.books.rohde-schwarz.com.